Biometrika, 75(2), 335–346. (2003). Just how many of us are there and how is our rising population affecting human health? A comparison of empirical models on determinants of infant mortality: A cross national study of Africa. This study empirically tests the impact of Population growth on Economic Development of Pakistan for period of 1975-2008. 130, Cornell University. Time series data from 21 countries. Total fertility rate (fr) appears to have a significant effect on child mortality rate (cmr) with a negative sign both in the short and in long-run. Socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality: A worldwide study of 152 low, middle, and high-income countries. Pakistan has no national health insurance system and 78 percent of the population pay health care expenses themselves. The changing relationship between mortality and level of economic development. (2002). This result is especially important for developing countries like Pakistan where population growth is high and infant deaths are frequent. The population increased from 3 billion to 7 billion in a fairly short time, and this fact had immense effects on the world we live in. Mortality decline in low income world: Causes and consequences. Rodgers, G. B. Brenner, M. H. (1979). ", Jacob Novignon & Solomon Olakojo & Justice Nonvignon, 2012. Human development in poor countries: On the role of private income and public services. International Journal of Health Services, 3(2), 145–159. In 1950 the mortality rate was twenty-seven per 1,000; by 2008 it has fallen to 8.23 deaths per 1000 (see table 3.2). FAO (2015). An assessment of OECD health care system: Using panel data analysis. Health Policy and Planning, 10(4), 384–394. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). ", Bishai, David & Opuni, Marjorie & Poon, Andrew, 2007. All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. United Nations projections are also included through the year 2100. What Determines Health Status of Population in Pakistan? An increasing rate of illiteracy among the masses.4. ", Rehana Siddiqui & Mir Annice Mahmood, 1994. The first contraction in decades, this reflects the effects of COVID-19 containment measures that followed monetary and fiscal tightening prior to the outbreak. Demography, 36, 337–342. Why reduce health inequalities? Schultz, T. W. (1993). duction and contraceptive methods, and the practice of family planning. Mortality as an indicator of economic success and failure. Le Franc, E. (1989). International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, 13, 33–52. Independant Researcher and Consultant based in Islamabad, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University, 406 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY, USA, Department of Economics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA, Assistant Chief, Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development Goals Section, Planning Commission of Pakistan, Pak Secretariat, Islamabad, Pakistan, You can also search for this author in American Economic Association (AEA) Papers and Proceedings, 83, 337–342. Techniques for testing the constancy of regression relations over time. (2011). Unit roots and cointegration for the economist, Chapter 3. (2000). An imbalance between death and birth rate. The United Nations Population Division estimates that, by 2025, nearly half the country's population will be living in cities. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 37, 149–163. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. The determinants of child mortality in Tanzania. Fertility and child mortality in Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana. Geneva: World Health Organization. (2015). Likelihood ratio statistics for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Kabir, M. (2008). Bulletin of World Health Organization, 82(12), 947–949. Major reasons for the increase in Population are 1. United Nations statement on Food security in Pakistan. Applied Economics, 34(2), 59–62. Journal of Health Economics, 23(4), 637–641. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11205-017-1702-5. Applied econometrics: A modern approach using E-views and Microfit. Journal of Development Studies, 40(1), 101–118. Journal of Human Resources, 30(4), 841–868. Sah, R. (1991). Infant mortality rate as an indicator of population health. 339 Washington DC. Woodward, A., & Kawachi, I. Health Policy, 24, 155–174. Subscription will auto renew annually. Asteriou, D. (2006). By 2030 this number is expected to increase to 8.6 billion and eventually 11.2 billion by 2100. Population Studies, 33(2), 343–351. Income inequality, illiteracy and life expectancy in Brazil. Pakistan Development Review, 33(4), 745–758. The study examines the impacts of population and the problems due to population increased and its influence on economic growth. The infant mortality-fertility debate: Some international evidence. Macinko, J., Frederico, C. G., & De Souza, F. M. (2006). (1993). ), Econometrics and economic theory in the 20th century: The Ragnar Frisch Centennial Symposium. This allows to link your profile to this item. ", Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. (1994). Islamabad: Economic Advisor’s Wing, Ministry of Finance. Pakistan's population growth: the need for action. These demographic projections raise a number of issues for the country. Principles of health economics in developing countries. PAKISTAN VISION 2025 7 www.pc.gov.pk impact of population growth Pakistan’s population is projected to increase to over 227 million by 2025. www.fao.org. Pakistan's extremely high rate of population growth is caused by a falling death rate combined with a continuing high birth rate. ), Cointegration for the applied economist. The main determinants of infant mortality in Nepal. Statistical analysis of cointegrating vectors. PubMed Google Scholar. This paper empirically examines factors related to social, economic, demographic and health care services that affect health status in Pakistan. ", Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. Health Economics for developing countries: A survival kit, Health Economics and Financing Program. Introduction to econometrics (2nd ed.). Health Economics Review, 5, 2. doi:10.1186/s13561-014-0037-z. World Bank. Cornel Food and nutrition policy program (CFNPP) working paper No. Engle, R. F., & Granger, C. W. (1987). Journal of Political Economy, 99, 582–606. ", Pritchett, Lant & Summers, Lawrence H., 1993. But overpopulation is seldom discussed as a public health issue. Sustainability and equity: A better future for all. ", M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. Applied Economics, 26(8), 797–802. One of the poorest countries in the world, Pakistan has 1 of the highest population growth rates in the world at about 3.0% annually. If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. We take the time series data with the sample size from 1981 to 2010. Asian Profile, 42(1), 11–22. World Development Report. () (Independant Researcher and Consultant based in Islamabad Cornell University), () (University of Kansas Planning Commission of Pakistan, Pak Secretariat). MPRA paper 6122. World Health Statistics 2007. Pakistan’s economic freedom score is 54.8, making its economy the 135th freest in the 2020 Index. (2001). Barros, P. P. (1998). In 1950 the mortality rate was twenty-seven per 1,000 population; by 1990 the rate had dropped to twelve (estimated) per 1,000. ", Banister, Judith & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2005. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12, 231–254. In Labor Market and Social Policy Occasional Paper No. Conflict, security and development. (1993). This result is especially important for developing countries like Pakistan where population growth is high and infant deaths are frequent. World Development, 33(1), 21–41. Health: Perception versus observation. Bidani, B., & Ravallion, M. (1997). Public and private roles in health: Theory and financing patterns. (2005). Determinants of life expectancy in developing countries. (2011). Economic survey of Pakistan 2010–2011. Holden, D., & Perman, R. (1994). Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, The effects of public and private health care expenditure on health status in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from panel data analysis. Asian Profile, 32(1), 1–6. This led to a ⁄urry of research looking at demographic variables and their e⁄ect on eco-nomic growth (for example Bloom et al., 2004; Webber, 2002) . ", Alberto Palloni & Hantamala Rafalimanana, 1999. Feldstein, M. (1967). Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. (2016). World Bank World Development Report 2011, Washington DC. Unit root in time series models: Tests and implications. The consequences of such an event are severe and major. (2015). Islamabad: Economic Advisor’s Wing, Ministry of finance. The population will also comprise a much larger proportion of younger people (63% below the age of 30). If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation. (2013). The study analyzed the effects of population on economic growth in case of Pakistan. Bidirectional causality exists between infant and child mortality and fertility rate; these results are supported by the modern economic theory of population. World Bank Economic Review, 10(1), 123–158. (1998). An autoregressive distributed lag modelling approach to cointegration analysis. The Journal of Developing Areas, 41(2), 185–204. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 7, 147–160. Robey B. PIP: Despite the existence of a national family planning program that dates to 1965 Pakistan has not seen a reduction in the fertility rate. B. Rao (Ed. Shahbaz, M., et al. Health economics and application in developing countries. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. (2007). Chart and table of Pakistan population from 1950 to 2020. The impact of public spending on health: does money matter? Brown, J., & Pollitt, E. (1996). New York: St. Martin’s Press. Inequality of income, illiteracy and medical care as determinants of infant mortality in underdeveloped countries. Its population growth rate of 2.40 percent is the highest in South Asia and stands in sharp contrast to the 1.0–1.5 percent growth rate of other South Asian countries. Reidpath, D. D., & Allotey, P. (2003). In the past, the country's population had a relatively high growth rate that has been changed by moderate birth rates. Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. (1999). Social sector issues in Pakistan: An overview. Between 1998–2017, the average population growth … Lack of women Empowerment. Applied time series modeling and forecasting. Sen, A. This study explores the effects of population growth on economic development in Rwanda over the period of 1974–2013. Demography and welfare economics. The Effects of Child Mortality Changes on Fertility Choice and Parental Welfare, The Effects Of Mortality Changes On Fertility Choice And Individual Welfare: Some Theoretical Predictions, Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root, Tests for Unit Roots: A Monte Carlo Investigation, Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Tests For Unit Roots: A Monte Carlo Investigation, Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, The Determinants of Health Status: A Cross-Country Analysis, New Estimates and Projections of Population Growth in Pakistan, The Determinants of Health Status in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ssa), On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health, Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships, Health care spending as determinants of health outcomes, Determinants of life expectancy in developing countries, Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure, Mother’s Health-seeking Behaviour and Childhood Mortality in Pakistan, Infant and child mortality in developing countries: Analysing the data for Robust determinants, A comparison of empirical models on determinants of infant mortality: A cross-national study on Africa, Health economics and applications in developing countries, Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing, Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing, Socio-economic determinants of health and physical fitness in southern Ethiopia, Socio-Economic Determinants Of Health And Physical Fitness In Southern Ethiopia, China, Economic Development and Mortality Decline, The black box of health care expenditure growth determinants, Does the level of infant mortality affect the rate of decline? Determinants of life expectancy and its prospects under the role of economic misery: A case of Pakistan. (1982). Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52, 169–210. Death rate: Pakistan's extremely high rate of population growth is caused by a falling death rate. McGuire, A., Parkin, D., Hughes, D., & Gerard, K. (1993). Johansen, S., & Juselius, K. (1990). Grossman, M. (1972). Effects Of Aging And Population Growth On Health Costs. ". Economics and Human Biology, 1(2), 55–75. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 35, 288–297. Maddala, G. S. (1992). Econometrica, 49(4), 1057–1072. Against the background of the demographic argument, presented in the preceding section, we must inquire into the social factors, broadly defined, that are involved in population growth and its control. Applied Economic letters, 6, 271–273. : Time series data from 21 countries, What determines public health expenditures in Pakistan? Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world with its population estimated at 207.8 million in 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1702-5. "The government of Pakistan wants to stabilize the population (achieve zero growth rate) by 2020.And maximizing the usage of family planning methods is one of the pillars of the population program". The effect of child mortality experience on subsequent fertility: In Pakistan and Bangladesh. Narayan, P. K. (2004). Fayissa, B., & Gutema, P. (2005). Part of Springer Nature. Pakistan: Sure Publishers Karachi. Banister, J., & Zhang, X. The demand for health. Infant mortality rate: The decrease in infant mortality rate is also a contributing factor. ", Bidani, Benu & Ravallion, Martin, 1995. Econometric analysis of national health expenditures: Can positive economics help to answer normative questions? Infant and child mortality in developing countries: Analyzing the data for robust determinants. Testing for a unit root in time series regressions. What are the determinants of health status in Latin America and the Caribbean?. Zakir, M., & Wunnava, P. V. (1999). Thorton, J. (2005). ", Lant Pritchett & Lawrence H. Summers, 1996. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nutrition appears to be causally related to life expectancy and child mortality. Messias, E. (2003). During 1950–2012, Pakistan's urban population expanded over sevenfold, while the total population increased by over fourfold. Journal of development Studies, 14, 22–39. These facilities are essential in offering health assistance in underserved communities where the Texas uninsured rate averages 15%, the poverty rate … Issa, H., & Ouattara, B. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(4), 1283–1302. 2011/7. Yet throughout this period, the birth rate was fortyfour per 1,000 population. ", Mohammed Zakir & Phanindra Wunnava, 1999. 46. Health Economics, 4, 157–167. Chowdhury, A. R. (1988). Cross country determinants of decline in infant mortality: A growth regression approach. ", Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. Role of income, urbanization and unemployment. We first estimated the annual percentage contribution of aging and population growth (taken together) to … A country needs to bring its growth rate down to 2 per cent a year to reduce its population. Abbas, F., & Hiemenz, U. The impact of public spending on health: Does money matter? Suwal, J. V. (2001). Econometrica, 55(2), 251–276. Other estimates, based on a modified definition of urban settlements, suggest that the ratio of urban to rural population could be 40.5 percent and even higher. Sen, A. New York: Published for the World Bank by Oxford University Press. Economist Joseph Spengler has estimated that 4 percent of national income goes to support our 1 percent per year rate of population growth in the United States (17). What determines public health expenditures in Pakistan? Socio-economic determinants of health and physical fitness in southern Ethiopia. By current estimates, we will be a population of 10 billion by the year 2050. Who and what feels the impact of population growth? At Pakistan’s growth rate — 3.6 — a population doubles in 19.4 years. Econometric analyses of national health expenditures: Can positive economics help to answer normative questions? Catalano, R., & Serxner, S. (1992). - 43.239.223.154. Correspondence to Dickey, D. A., & Fuller, W. A. Evaluation of the impact of the family health program on infant mortality in Brazil, 1990–2002. High-density housing is often seen as a sign of population growth that can lead to unhealthful conditions. More medical care, better health. Social and Economics Studies, 38(2), 291–305. The effect of child mortality changes on fertility choice and parental welfare. In Pakistan, 24.3% of the population lives below the national poverty line in 2015. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16, 289–326. General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com . © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. (2003). Kimhi, A. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc. Sachs, J. D. (2004). Estimating a health production function for US: Some new evidence. Fertility prospects in Pakistan. Brown, R. L., Durbin, J., & Evans, J. M. (1975). London: McMillan Publication. Faisal Abbas. It is the only country in the world without a National Health Ministry. Novignon, J., Olakojo, A. S., & Nonvignon, J. Similarly, Akram et al. (1986). Thematic Group on Rural Development and Food Security. Authors don’t have a conflict of interest to declare. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Make every mother and child count, World Health Report 2005. UNDP. For every 1,000 babies born in Pakistan in 2018, 69 die before their 5th birthday. Health Economics, 2, 113–126. (2011). Pakistan’s economics performance 1947 to 1993: A descriptive analysis. Paris: OECD. Economic Change and Restructuring, 46, 341–362. Health Economics, 8, 627–639. Economic survey of Pakistan 2011–2012. Journal of Econometrics, 77, 125–139. Population Development Review, 29(3), 483–492. (Eds.). A. The analysis is conducted using ARDL bound testing approach on annual data ranging from 1960 to 2014. Sep 2, 2019. Johansen, S. (1988). Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980–2011). Waldmann, R. (1992). Preston, S. H. (1975). Anand, S., & Ravallion, M. (1993). (1995). Pesaran, M. H., Shin, Y., & Smith, R. (2001). Between 1998 and 2017, Pakistan’s average population growth rate was 2.40%. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Statistical Database online. You can help correct errors and omissions. If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form . Malik, S. J., Aftab, S., & Sultana, N. (1994). While population growth, of any species, may be beneficial to a certain extent, there may come a time when the number in the population exceeds the natural resources available to sustain it. Sathar, Z., & Zaidi, B. China, economic development and mortality decline. Decomposing social indicators using distributional data. Manila: Asian Development Bank. The analysis is conducted using ARDL bound testing approach on annual data ranging from 1960 to 2014. Income and inequality as determinants of mortality: An international cross section analysis. It is estimated that health spending has a significant impact on health status, specifically, development health spending and income are robust predictors of health status for the population in Pakistan and is seen to affect female life expectancy positively in both the short and in long run, however, it is important to note that the impact of income per capita is relatively stronger than that of public health spending. Flegg, A. T. (1982). ", Lucia Hanmer & Robert Lensink & Howard White, 2003. Yamada, T. (1985). Population Studies, 29(2), 231–248. Population Growth And Our Ecosystem Population Studies, 30(2), 249–261. World Development report 1993, investing in health. (2000). Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. This paper is a part of first Authors’ Ph.D. research, thus, funding provided by German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) is highly acknowledged. ), Long run economic relationships: Readings in cointegration. Disease control priorities in developing countries. Bishai, D. M. (1995). Younger, S. D. (2001). Causal relationships between infant mortality and fertility in developed and less developed countries. , 1987 ) per 1,000 population ; by 1990 the rate had to. Labor Market and social policy Occasional paper No is especially important for developing like... Over fourfold surpass that of Indonesia in 2048 when it will reach 331.29 million — 3.6 a. 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