PETROLEUM REFINING AND THE PROD UCTION OF ULSG AND ULSD OCTOBER 24, 2011 Page 3 3. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining provides a thorough and balanced introduction to refinery engineering topics from basic concepts and unit operations to overall refinery economics. Comparison of model prediction data with industrial ones shows that the model has beenachieved adequately.Simulation studies are performed to investigate the effect of changing process variables, such input catalysttemperature and catalyst to oil ratio (COR). Based on the total yield of aromatic products, the synthesis conditions of HZSM-5 zeolite with the best DME aromatization properties were obtained by comprehensive analysis and validation experiments. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Find more similar flip PDFs like Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining. The nanometric catalyst showed conversions around 100% methanol after 8 h of reaction and 32.5% selectivity to the BTX fraction to 450 °C. In recent years, environmental regulations caused that the FCC units have found very important roles in oilrefineries for improve the quality of oil products. identifies the barriers to and regulatory remedies for further development. The aviation industry has achieved several milestones in emission reduction including improved aircraft fuel efficiency and better air traffic control to promote safe, efficient and sustainable air travel. Topics include clean fuels, gasification, biofuels and the environmental impact of refining. Perspectives for a sustainable future for historic European cultural landscapes are based on the following observations: society’s demand for multifunctionality; the inclination of farmers to meet this demand if it is economically profitable; support from national and local authorities (and the public) for ecologically sound management and finally, decentralization of landscape ruling and legislation, which favours regional solutions. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics. The obtained aerogel was made hydrophobic by vapor-phase deposition of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS). Mark as downloaded . The final residues can be converted to usable products such as hydrogen steam, electricity, ammonia and chemicals. Then the Thermal insulation and strength properties of cellular concrete allow erecting single-layer enclosing structures with the required thermal resistance from it. Dress code is casual. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining. The potential of coproduction of chemicals and steam with electricity offers the flexibility to respond to market demands. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining PDF By:Mohamed A. Fahim,Taher A. Al-Sahhaf,Amal Elkilani Published on 2009-11-19 by Elsevier. The influence of the form of zinc incorporation, the acidity and the reaction temperature had a great influence on the catalytic activity. Throughout the book, numerous problem sets and examples are given in order to put the fundamental principles of refining into practice. In many cases, graduates from the petroleum engineering department had to assume responsibilities in refining and petrochemical plants while many chemical engineers have been assigned jobs in the prospecting and oil field operations. J. Chem. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) were employed as pre‐fractionation techniques. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining was published by Oya FX Trading & Investments on 2015-03-14. The economic indicators of the refinery cart improve as well. Download Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining 1st Edition by Mohamed A. Fahim, Taher A. Al-Sahhaf, Amal Elkilani in pdf format for free. sector while Petroleum Engineering graduates work in the upstream sector. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining M A Fahim. A great deal of attention has been given in the last few years to residue upgrading in order to improve the economics of refining. A selective separation and recovery process has been developed based on the supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation (SFEF) technology. . Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. Due to the changing energy outlook in terms of pollution regulations on burning fuels, clean fuel production is discussed in Chapter 12. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Free convection flow of nanofluid through an exponentially accelerated porous plate with variable The supply of petroleum continues to dwindle at an alarming rate, yet it is the source of a range of products — from gasoline and diesel to plastic, rubber, and synthetic fiber. The factors related to refinery economics are reviewed in Chapter 16. It is defined as the maximum height in mm, of a smokeless flame of fuel. Dakota Prairie Refinery –20,000 bpd Bakken crude topping unit with diesel hydrotreating •Meridian Energy Group near Belfield, ND o 49,500 bpd refinery o Originally expected 2018 startup –may operate on midstream tolling concept Plans near Bakken production •MHA Clean Fuels Refinery, 15,000 bpd . Comm. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. Here we 2 Petroleum Refining.pdf. The pre‐fractionation by SPE and SFC and the subsequent analysis with GC‐MS with Cold‐EI was applied to an oxygenated heavy paraffinic fraction. Understanding Automotive Electronics: An Engineering Perspective Eighth edition by William B. Ribbens pdf free download, An Introduction to EXCEL for Civil Engineers From engineering theory to Excel practice free pdf download, A Textbook of Electrical Technology Volume II - AC and DC machines - B.L. Inability to sufficiently predict the yields before refinery process creates challenges such as inadequacy in planning the operating conditions to meet product target, product optimisation failure and inability to meet product market specification. For this purpose, gasification has emerged as the technology of choice because of its superior environmental performance when compared with the competing means for residue utilization. PDF | On Mar 21, 2018, Habib Hurmuzlu published Fundamentals of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate By comparison, considerably less research had been carried out in other important areas such as: assessing the impacts wastes returned to shore for disposal; identifying sustainable strategies for operations; and assessing and mitigating against adverse impacts from atmospheric emissions. . This paper focused on using a Visual Basic 6.0 programming language to predict product yields that is based on kinetic reaction models. The accurate identification of the oxygenates present in these fractions by electron ionisation (EI) mass spectrometry is challenging due to the complexity of these heavy fractions. The module on refining covers various facets of petroleum refining. Main Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining. petroleum training courses workshops seminars. bachelor of applied technology petroleum engineering. Semi-batch pilot and continuous pilot experiments were performed to establish data base for the process design of industrial scale. Therefore planners and managers are facing the question: how can a sustainable future for old cultural landscapes, based on sound economics and the commitment of all actors be achieved? Download Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining PDF for free. Un…, An Introduction to EXCEL for Civil Engineers From engineering theory to Excel practice. This chapter provides an overview of current opportunities for the development of biojet fuels and highlights the reasons behind the burgeoning efforts. A review on the basic aspects of technologies dealing with fluid bed coking covers hydrocarbon production; coke gasification; products from Fluid Coking and Flexicoking; process selection criteria; and comparison of relative economics for the upgrading of crude oil residues that can encompass a number of process technologies depending on the feedstock (atmospheric vs. vacuum residua) and the technology type (carbon rejection vs. hydrogen addition). The separation of oxygenates from the complex hydrocarbon matrix prior to high temperature GC‐MS (HT‐GC‐MS) analysis reduces the complexity of these fractions and assists in the accurate identification of these oxygenates. GC‐MS with Supersonic Molecular Beams (also named GC‐MS with Cold‐EI) utilises a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) interface with which electron ionisation is done with vibrationally cold sample compounds in a fly‐through ion source (Cold‐EI) resulting in a substantial increase in the molecular ion signal intensity in the mass spectrum. Eng. Practical Electronics fo…, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook Eighth Edition. Chapters 1–10 can be used as core materials for teaching an undergraduate course in petroleum refining. After a comprehensive overview of landscape use in the past, the various ways in which people have regarded their landscape and the ever changing attitude towards landscape use are reviewed. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics. Chapter 5 The Petroleum Refining Industry INDUSTRY OVERVIEW The petroleum refining industry uses the largest quantity of premium fuels in the industrial sec-tor, amounting to 2,7 Quads in 1981. Combined cracking and decay constants in the 3- and 4-lump kinetic models reported in the literature are estimated by linear regression analysis using experimental data and the proposed methodology. Cellular concretes are divided into aerated concrete and foam concrete, the operating, physical and mechanical parameters of which are almost the same with all other things being equal. 3 petrole.pdf. It deals with basic component of petroleum upstream. IchemE 75 (1997) 401; A modified integrated dynamic model of a riser type FCC unit, Master's Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (1998); Can. Main Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining. You can see below that petroleum in its more refined form contribute heavily to the modern economy. Download Fundamentals Of Petroleum Refining books, Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. The cellulose-rich fraction was then washed, ground and lyophilized. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. ’ It is sec-ond only to the chemicals industry in the total amount of energy it consumes. The worldwide trends in the crude oil supply indicate a continuous increase of the heavy crudes. petroleum coke quarterly jacobs consultancy. Examples on using process simulators (UNISIM) are also presented. A model for a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit which describes the dynamic behaviour of the riser, particle separator vessel, and the regenerator is developed. . These correlations are mainly based on regression of published pilot plant data. history of the petroleum industry wikipedia. The results showed that the HZSM-5 zeolite accompanied by hierarchical structure, an appropriate Brønsted and Lewis acid content and uniform crystal morphology, was successfully synthesized under optimized conditions. For experienced engineers and managers, Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining is ideal for acquiring the necessary background in the field and understanding new applications in the refining industry. – 2003. Scientists from all over Europe, convening in the Netherlands, set out new directions for landscape science. ⏩Authors: Mohamed A. Fahim, Taher A. Al-Sahhaf, Amal Elkilani. qualities. Aviation should be environmentally sustainable, cause minimal pollution to air and water, and contribute to high quality human life. 9. Control of the FCC is challenging and there is strong incentive to use multivariable (MV) control schemes, such as model predictive control (MPC), which accommodate these interactions. We would also like to thank Engineers Mohamed Hamed and Khalid Damiyar for their technical help during the production of this book. This study investigated the ionisation behaviour of oxygenated compounds using Cold‐EI. remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Also, refinery sludges can be cogasified with the final residues and as such, be converted to usable products. refining munity training. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. Check Pages 351 - 400 of Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining in the flip PDF version. Various refining processes used in the refineries have been dealt with in this module. However, no clear winning sustainable jet fuel technology exists, a situation that encourages continued research and development in innovative biojet fuel technologies. Predicting yields using a yield pattern model practised by the Tema Oil Refinery is economical; however, it is time consuming and tedious. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining was published by Oya FX Trading & Investments on 2015-03-14. where it is felt that the market potential is largest and GRI's efforts most effective. Thus, availability of a modeling program for FCC is a majorimportance in unit optimization and scale-up or reducing the problems of a FCC unit. Modern agricultural practices, urbanization and recreation all threaten the existence of valuable cultural landscapes, but simple solutions to conserve many of these landscapes are not at hand. College graduates new to the field of engineering, who may just be starting their careers in the oil and gas industry, will also find the text useful. ZSM-5 zeolite in its acid form was exchanged using an aqueous zinc salt solution and demonstrated a significantly higher selectivity for the aromatic products in comparison with the purely acidic catalysts. The work started with processing the waste (sawdust) by steam explosion with a mixture of nitric and acetic acid. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining provides a thorough and balanced intro- duction to refinery engineering topics from basic concepts and unit opera- tions to overall refinery economics. The FCCU is difficult to model well, due to significant nonlinearities and interactions. Fahim M.A., Sahhhaf T.A., Elkilani A.S. These chapters cover the subjects of catalytic reforming and isomerization, coking, hydroconversion (hydrotreating and hydrocracking) and fluid catalytic cracking. petroleum oil amp gas training petroskills courses. In the present work the zeolite HZSM-5 exchanged with Zn with Si/Al 25 ratio presented conversions close to 100% methanol with 32% selectivity to the BTX fraction, however, this catalyst was deactivated after 8 h of reaction with a weight hourly space velocity of 4.74 h−1 at 450 °C. Many worked examples offer clear understanding of the covered subjects. Fundamentals Of Petroleum Refining PDF [DOWNLOAD] [Book] Free Petroleum ninja find the best petroleum engineering school. CRUDE OIL AT A GLANCE Refineries exist to convert crude oil into finished petroleum products. An overall case study is given in Chapter 18. A number of commercial projects in Europe, Asia and United States use a gasifier employing either a slurry feeding system or a dry feeding system. Landscape ecology, as a study of relations on the earth’s surface can tackle planning and management issues from numerous view points, each with its own focal points. bioremediation of petroleum oil contaminated soil and water. Arduino Robotics (Technology in Action) pdf. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. The process of refining . But the hydrophilic nature of plant fibers reduces their capacity to sorb oils. Therefore, gasoline does not conform Iraqi standards and it is essential to improve the production quality and tighten up the quality parameters so as to pace the international standards. Fundamentals Of Petroleum Refining by Mohamed A. Fahim, Fundamentals Of Petroleum Refining Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining PDF for free. In addition, post Kyoto regulatory developments and societal concern over atmospheric pollution, will increasingly focus efforts on reducing the emission of global warming gases. ... Petroleum refining is a process that takes advantage of the different weights, volatilities and boiling temperatures of hydrocarbons to separate them, creating intermediate and final products. Within North America, recent demand for refined petroleum products has been flat to declining and is forecast to con-tinue on this path. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining serves both professionals and academics. Kinetic models in non-linear form indicated a better fit for experimental data by the pseudo-nth order model (n = 0.95) for petroleum and by pseudo-first order for vegetable oil. This facilitates the solution of the equations and makes the model particularly suitable for control studies. Author: Mohamed A. Fahim,Taher A. Al-Sahhaf,Amal Elkilani: Publsiher : Elsevier: Total Pages: 516: Release: 2009-11-19: … Throughout the book, empirical correlations are used to calculate product yields and perform material balances. Post a Review . Yield prediction is an integral part of every refinery process due to the intricacy of the process and composition of crude oil. After lyophilization an aerogel of specific mass 0.046 ± 0.0013 g cm−3 and porosity 97.08 ± 0.08% was obtained. Fundamentals of Refining. Prerequisites None. Based on the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, the text develops the scientific background needed for an understanding of refinery operations. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Meanwhile, the speed of gas infrastructure development has been slow and gas production is declining due to aging gas fields without significant new gas production. Fundamentals of refining 1. Priorities for the next century include: integration between disciplines; matching of scales in time and place with users, researchers and decision makers to enhance interaction and understanding. Based on the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, the text develops the scientific background needed for an understanding of refinery operations. Chapter 3 covers the subject of calculating the thermophysical properties of crude oils and petroleum fractions. The projection results show that the domestic gas demand will increase significantly, with gas demand in 2025 being approximately double to triple that in 2013. Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): http://ucs.sulsellib.net//inde... (external link) Professionals and academics will also benefit from this book. . (ed.) McGraw-Hill Professional. The MTA catalyst lifetime is increased by several times due to the enhanced mesoporosity and decreased acidity. petroleum coke quarterly jacobs consultancy. The trends in deregulation of the power market enable petroleum refineries to enter this lucrative market either alone or in a partnership with the utilities. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. Cellulose aerogels have become a product of great interest in this area due to their high porosity, low specific mass and high surface area, in addition to cellulose’s abundance and sustainability. Please login to your account first; Need help? Download and Read online Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining, ebooks in PDF, ... Get Free Fundamentals Of Petroleum Refining Textbook and unlimited access to our library by created an account. It was found that the process offers high efficient products and solvent recovery. Find more similar flip PDFs like Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining. Mark as downloaded . 3 petrole.pdf. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. Kinetic parameters for the 4-lump model and the activation energies are presented. A sensitivity study is carried out to determine the interactions between the three controlled and manipulated variables and the elements of the Bristol1 relative gain array matrix. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining: – First Edition. Alkylation . The proposed methodology gives accurate predictions of product yields in the FCC process with average deviations less than 3% with respect to experimental data. These heavy oxygenated paraffinic fractions need to be characterised to enable the control of oxidation processes and to understand product properties. According to the hydrothermal treatment method, cellular concrete is divided into two groups: autoclaved and non-autoclaved concrete (air hardening or steaming). cracking and related refinery processes. The relationship between the aromatization performance, crystalline structure, pore structure, and acidity of HZSM-5 zeolite were analyzed. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) has a major effect on profitability of an oil refinery. Basic research work has been done on the phase behavior, phase equilibria and modeling of a number of systems including petroleum residue, polymers, waxes and lubricants with the light hydrocarbon solvents. Fundamentals of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering Review: As we all know that the petroleum has a major role in our lives today and it is one of the most important things for sure. In this work we propose a simple method to estimate gasoline, gas, and coke yields in the catalytic cracking process. The kinetic model differential equations were solved using a fourth order Runge−Kutta method in order to evaluate FCC product yield−conversion relationships. Acknowledgements The Canadian Fuels Association acknowledges the following contributors who provided valuable content and insights to make this document a comprehensive, accurate and useful resource: Philip Cross, Senior Fellow, MacDonald … Download and Read online Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining, ebooks in PDF, epub, Tuebl Mobi, Kindle Book.Get Free Fundamentals Of Petroleum Refining Textbook and unlimited access to our library by … Now in its eighth edition, Perry's Chemical Eng…. PREFACE by the authors: Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining provides a thorough and balanced introduction to refinery engineering topics from basic concepts and unit operations to overall refinery economics. sector while Petroleum Engineering graduates work in the upstream sector. . The coke amount and the average rate of coke formation decreased over the Zn‐2P/HZSM‐5 catalysts, which may largely be ascribed to its lower strong acid sites and lower outer surface acidity. Acid gas treatment and removal are discussed in Chapter 15. . It also provides an indepth description of major refinery processes and then assimilates an integrated refinery by focusing on the economic and operational aspects necessary for enhancing performance and profitability. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics. 1 Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining.pdf. Please login to your account first; Need help? Assay of the Requisite of the Metallic Corrosion in Crude Oils, THE STRENGTH OF CORROSIVE PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OILS ON FERROUS METALS, Contingency of the Destruction of Metals in Petroleum Oils, General Features of the Metallic Corrosion in Raw Crude Oils, High temperature production of hydrogen: Assessment of non-renewable resources technologies and emerging trends, Enhancing the Properties of the Egyptian Gasoline through Modified Blending Operations, Chapter 7 - Fischer–Tropsch synthesis of syngas to liquid hydrocarbons, Pyrolysis of Vacuum Residue By Thermal and Catalytic Cracking Using Active Alumina Catalyst, Fundamental Corrosive Properties of Crude Oils and their Effect on the Ferrous Metals, Catalytic activation of unstrained C(aryl)–C(aryl) bonds in 2,2′-biphenols, The influences of the crude oils on the decay of metals, Combustion kinetics of H2S and other sulfurous species with relevance to industrial processes, A Detailed Reaction Kinetic Model of Heavy Naphtha Reforming, Compositional modeling of crude oils using C10-C36 properties generated by molecular simulation, Recent developments in alumina supported hydrodesulfurization catalysts for the production of sulfur-free refinery products: A technical review, Evaluation of energy and greenhouse gas emissions of bitumen-derived transportation fuels from toe-to-heel air injection extraction technology, Oil recovery from water-based drilling fluid waste, SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF A HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT, Modelling and simulation of an industrial RFCCU-riser reactor for catalytic cracking of vacuum residue, SPE-193440-MS Optimization Of The Production Of High Quality Gasoline Blend From Different Oxygenates, Impact of the chemical structure on amphiphilic properties of sugar-based surfactants: A literature overview, Ejector integration for the cost effective design of the Selexol TM process, Simulation and optimization of hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas for refining and petrochemical demands in Lebanon ScienceDirect, Integration of Fossil Fuel-based with Bio-based Industries: The Use of Waste Streams and Biomass to Produce Syngas and Added Value Products, Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Ethanol–Diesel Blend Fuel, NMR Diffusiometry Spectroscopy, a Novel Technique for Monitoring the Micro-Modifications in Bitumen Ageing, Reaction characteristics and sediment formation of slurry phase hydrocracking with vacuum residue in a bench-scale bubble column reactor, La biomasa: fuente alternativa de combustibles y compuestos químicos, Oil refining in Sicily: A critical perspective looking to the future, Integrating Oil Refineries and Bio-refineries: Upgrading Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol to High-Value Products, Water Equivalent Determination of a Known Calorific Value Using Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter, Sustainable Optimization of Natural Gas Sweetening Using A Process Simulation Approach and Sustainability Evaluator, New trends in improving gasoline quality and octane through naphtha isomerization: a short review, Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Derived from Alcohols: A Volume in the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Second Edition, Bio-Gtl Processes: A Volume in the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Second Edition, In situ observations of an active MoS2 model hydrodesulfurization catalyst, Highly shape‐selective Zn‐P/HZSM‐5 zeolite catalyst for methanol conversion to light aromatics, Recent Trends, Opportunities and Challenges of Sustainable Aviation Fuel, Software approach on crude oil yields prediction: A case study of Tema Oil Refinery, Free Convection Flow of Nanofluid through anExponentially Accelerated Vertical Platewith Variable Viscosity in the Presence of Radiation and Chemical Reaction, Biofuel Production from Lignocellulosic Feedstock via Thermochemical Routes, QUÍMICA DO SOLO: UMA ABORDAGEM DIFERENCIADA SOBRE OS ELEMENTOS QUÍMICOS, Synthesis of HZSM-5 zeolites with excellent DME aromatization properties by orthogonal test, ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE MAJOR QUALITY PARAMETERS Dhuha kadhim Ismayyir* and Lamyaa M. Dawood**, The pre‐separation of oxygen containing compounds in oxidised heavy paraffinic fractions and their identification by GC‐MS with Supersonic Molecular Beams, ZSM-5 zeolites modified with Zn and their effect on the crystal size in the conversion of methanol to light aromatics (MTA), Oils sorption on hydrophobic nanocellulose aerogel obtained from the wood furniture industry waste, Gasification in Petroleum Refinery of 21st Century, FCC unit modeling, identification and model predictive control, a simulation study, A mathematical modeling of the riser reactor in industrial FCC unit, Rates of reaction of individual groups of hydrocarbons in hydrocracking, Refining: Review of fluid bed coking technologies, Integrating petrochemicals into the refinery, Selective separation and recovery process Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation, Modelling and Control of a Riser Type Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit, A Simple Method for Estimating Gasoline, Gas, and Coke Yields in FCC Processes, Kinetic modeling of high-severity fluidized catalytic cracking☆, Control of Reactive Distillation Processes, The sustainable energy approach in the manufacture of cellular concrete, Status and outlook of natural gas industry development in Indonesia.